In this Chapter it's back to to Plymouth in search of John and Harriet Stone. We also give an historical snap shot of what was happening at the time to put individuals in context. Nowadays we take modern communications for granted - the information highway means that we can find out at any time what is happening on the other side of the globe with the flick of a switch. Imagine a farm laborer in South Pool Devon in the 1700's. What did he know, could he read, what was his source of information - was he even interested in what was happening outside of his immediate community? Family history should be researched and documented in context.
Making the connection back to Plymouth was relatively straightforward with birth records for John STONE1 and his bride Harriet LOWDER2 and their subsequent marriage.3 Importantly subsequent Birth, Death and Marriage (BDM) Records in Queensland and Victoria for each of their children confirmed the same. Australia from Colonial times has maintained very detailed Birth Death and Marriage records and Death Certificates in particular span 3 generations (parents, spouses, marriage, children, burial and cause of death).
Early research led us from Plymouth to Holbeton and surrounding hamlets where the family had lived, worked and grown over at least 4 generations before dispersing to surrounding larger population centers such as Exeter and Plymouth (although it is likely the family had connections back in time to Exeter). Thereafter the exodus extended abroad. Apart from the research undertaken by British Ancestors I also relied on the compilation of Parish Registers undertaken by the Devon Family History Society (otherwise known as the DFHS). In the case of the STONE family the relevant records pertaining to The Deanery of Plympton for the periods 1813-1839 (Baptisms); 1754-1837 (Marriages); and 1813-1837 (Burials). The Society offers a range of records on CD Rom format that largely cover the field in Devon.4
The village of Holbeton in the South Hams Devon figured prominently in my research. Holbeton. This is a quaint pretty little village wrapped in history extending back through the centuries. Chosen as the Devon Village of the Year in 20035 I made my first pilgrimage in 2007 and can only encourage others who figure in our ancestry to do likewise. The other invaluable outcome of the last two visits has been filling a few gaps from headstones located and documented in the churchyard of All Saint’s Holbeton;6 for that we owe a debt of gratitude to a ‘local’ historian residing in Mothecombe Rosemary Neale.
The following three historical descriptions of Holbeton provide a historical insight into this village community.7 The first transcribed from William White’s History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Devonshire 1850:
'’HOLBETON, a large straggling village, on an eminence, west of the Erme estuary, and four miles S.W. by W. of Modbury, has in its parish 1120 souls, and 4623 acres of land, extending to Bigbury Bay, and including the hamlets of Mothecombe, Creacombe, and Ford, and many scattered farmhouses, &c. Lime is burnt here, and barges of 70 tons come up the estuary. Lady Eliz. Bulteel, (daughter of Earl Grey, and a relict of the late J.C. Bulteel Esq.,) is lady of the manor, and has a large and elegant mansion here, called Flete House, which was long the seat of the ancient family of Hele, one of whom was created a baronet in 1627. This branch of the family became extinct in 1716, when the estate passed to the Bulteels. . . . Membland Hall, the seat of Robert Robertson, Esq., formerly belonged to the Rev. Sir Pp. Perring, Bart., and was the occasional residence of his family, one of whom, Sir John Perring, was Lord Mayor of London in 1803, and was created a baronet in 1808. His uncle purchased the estate of the Bulteels, and rebuilt the house. Rd. Holland, Esq., the Rev. W.J. Pinwill, and several smaller owners, have estates in the parish. The Church (All Saints,) is a large and handsome cruciform structure, with a tower, containing six bells, and crowned by a spire. It is mostly in the early perpendicular style, and in the south aisle is a canopied monument, with a recumbent effigy of one of the Heles, and several kneeling figures. The vicarage, valued in K.B. at £24. 1s. 8d., and in 1831 at £300, is in the patronage of the crown, and incumbency of the Rev. Courtenay Bulteel, who has 3A. 1R. 36P. of glebe, and an ancient residence.”
Extract from Devon by W.G.Hoskins (1954):8
'’HOLBETON is a considerable village set back a little from the beautiful wooded shores of the Erme estuary, amid quite unspoiled country. The coastal scenery of the parish is also most attractive. The banks of the Erme are lined with country houses, of which the most notable is Flete, in a large park, formerly the seat of Lord Mildmay and now a Plymouth hospital. Flete owes its present character as a house to Norman Shaw who remodelled it extensively from 1878 onwards. He built the great tower on the N. front, rebuilt the NW. wing, and drastically altered the interior to put in “over-rich Tudor.” The house had already been drastically remodelled in the Gothic style in 1835, and the front is all of this date. Flete was a Saxon estate (it is recorded in Domesday). Other Saxon estates in the parish-all recorded in Domesday-were Battisborough, Lamb-side, and Membland. Mothecombe, a beautiful site at the mouth of the river, is first referred to in the early 13th century. The present house was built about 1710. Membland was rebuilt in the 1780s. Pamflete is delightfully situated near the wooded shores of the Erme. The house has traces of old work. The church (All Saints) has a dignified and spacious interior, with lofty granite arcades (early 16th century), and shallow N. and S. transepts. The tower and spire are probably early 14th century. The church contains much excellent modern woodwork, notably the screens, benches and stalls. The modern chancel roof should also be noted. In the Hele chapel is a striking monument with 22 figures arranged in four steps or tiers, representing three generations of the Heles. The effigy in armour is that of Sir Thomas Hele of Flete (d. 1670). Above is his father, Thomas Hele (d. 1624) and family, and above him again Sir Thomas’s grandfather, Thomas Hele of Exeter (d. 1613), and family’’.
Transcribed by Colin Hinson, description from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868):
“HOLBETON, a parish in the hundred of Ermington, county Devon, 4½ miles S.W. of Modbury, its post town, and 9 S.E. of Plymouth. It is an extensive scattered village, situated near Bigbury Bay, on the river Erme, and contains the hamlets of Mothecombe, Ford, Creacombe, and Membland. The inhabitants are principally engaged in agriculture. The soil is clay. It is a meet for Mr. Roe’s harriers. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £494 5s., and the vicarial for £340. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of Exeter, value £300, in the patronage of the crown. The church, dedicated to All Saints, is an ancient cruciform structure, with a square tower containing six bells. In the interior of the church is a very antique font, also monuments of the Bulteel and Perring families. The parochial charities produce about £2 per annum. Here is a place of worship for the Wesleyans, also National schools for both sexes. The principal residences are the Flete House and Membland Hall. The former is an old mansion, commanding an extensive view of the sea. This mansion was greatly improved in 1836 by the late J. C. Bulteel, Esq., and has a picture gallery. It is the seat of Elizabeth Bulteel, who is lady of the manor”.
The Bulteel, Mildmay, related families and others are still to be found in the area.
The period that follows spans the mid 1600’s to 1860 thereabouts. As expressed in the preamble I take the view that a complete family history does not turn on births, deaths and marriages alone – an understanding of a family ancestry is best achieved in context of the life and times of family members. Accordingly my research is set in an historical context of what was happening at the time in Britain and Europe generally; a selected time line mirrors important and defining dates of family events. That is not to say in an era of limited communications and news that people in the villages were aware of what was going on save for their immediate environment; the reality is that events which shaped history ultimately filtered down to village life.
By the time the first of the STONE’s of South Pool reached Holbeton the United Kingdom of Great Britain comprising England, Wales and Scotland had been formalised by the Act of Union in 1707. Alaska had been discovered in 1740. The British defeated the Scots under the Stuart Pretender Prince Charles at Cullendon Moor in 1746. The Encyclopedia began 1751 in France and Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary was published in 1751; the same year the US postal service was established. 1756 to 1763 marked the Seven Years War with France, Austria, Spain and Russia. It was also the start of the British Empire in 1757 when Robert Clive defeated the Nawab of Bengal at Plassey. Two years later the British captured Quebec from France.
At about this time in 1760 Richard STONE married Mary YABSLEY in South Pool and Josias their second born arrived in Holbeton 1761.
By 1762 Catherine the Great was Czarina of Russia the same year Mozart toured Europe as a 6 year old prodigy. In 1765 James Watt invented the steam engine and Britain imposed the Stamp Act on the American colonists. On the industrial front Sir William Arkwright invented and patented a spinning machine in 1769, the first steps towards the Industrial Revolution. 1770 was the Boston Massacre followed by the Boston Tea Party in 1773. By 1774 the First Continental Congress had drafted the ‘Declaration of Rights and Grievances’. A year later the American Revolution began with the battle of Lexington and Concord; the Second Continental Congress was convened. In 1778 Captain James Cook discovered Hawaii and Australia. The American Revolution ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
In 1783 Josias STONE married Jenny HALL in Holbeton.
One year later the Russians annexed Crimea, John Wesley published the basic works of Methodism styled Deed of Declaration, the Russians settled the Aleutian Islands.
In 1786 John the second born child to Josias and Jenny STONE was born in Holbeton.
In 1787 the Constitution of the United States was signed. The First Fleet reached Australia in 1788. George Washington was elected the first President in 1789, the same year the French Revolution began with the storming of the Bastille. Closer to Australia the Bounty mutineers settled Pitcairn Island in 1790 and in 1791 the US Bill of Rights was ratified; a year later Mary Wollstonecraft published her Vindication of the Rights of Women. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793 and so began the Reign of Terror. Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Austrians in 1796 and in a coup of 1799 became first Consul later declaring himself Emperor in 1804. In 1801 the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established with one monarch and one Parliament and Catholics were excluded from voting. Lord Nelson prevailed over the Spanish and French Fleets at Trafalgar in 1805, the same year that Napoleon was victorious over Austrian and Russian forces at the Battle of Austerlitz.
In 1806 John STONE married Mary Ann GOAD, the same year Nicholas Goad STONE was born in Holbeton.
In 1808 the US Congress banned the importation of slaves and Beethoven’s 5th and 6th Symphonies were performed. By 1812 Napoleon had started his ill fated Russian campaign and Britain was back at war with the US in 1812 over freedom of the seas for US vessels. In 1814 George Stephenson built the first practical steam locomotive and the French had been defeated however Napoleon returned in 1815. Vanquished at Waterloo by Wellington Napoleon was banished to St. Helena; he would die there. Between 1822 and 1829 the Greeks and their French, Russian and British allies successfully fought a war of independence against the Turks. In 1825 England established its first passenger carrying railway. Joseph Nicephone Niepce took the first photograph in 1826. By 1833 slavery had been abolished in the British Empire and in 1836 the Boer farmers started the ‘Great Trek’ and so founded Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State in South Africa. That same year was the Alamo enshrining Davey Crockett and Jim Bowie in American folklore.
In 1836 Nicholas Goad STONE married Mary Ann HUTCHINS in Honiton and their first born John STONE arrived in Holbeton.
In 1837 Victoria ascended the throne. The first of The Opium Wars raged between 1839 and 1842 between China and Britain. 1840 Upper and Lower Canada were united, Crawford Long used the first aesthetic ether and a year later Wagner’s Opera The Flying Dutchman was performed. 1848 was a year of war and conflict with revolutions in Europe and between Mexico and the US over Texas. By 1849 the California Gold Rush had begun. In 1851 Herman Melville’s Moby Dick was published followed a year later by Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Tom’s Cabin; the same year that the South African Republic was established. The Crimean War began in 1853 the same year that Admiral Perry reached Tokyo. Florence Nightingale nursed the wounded in the Crimean War in 1855. Between 1850 and 1860 slavery was the hot topic in the US culminating in the Civil War 1861. Meanwhile 1857 Europe and the US were in the grip of a major financial crisis and the Great Mutiny in India resulted in direct Crown Rule. In 1858 the first trans- Atlantic telegraph cable was completed. The following year work on the Suez Canal had commenced and Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir built the first practical internal combustion engine. Charles Darwin published Origin of the Species and J.S Mill Liberty. By 1861 the serfs had been emancipated in Russia, Pasteur’s theory on germs was published and Italy was unified under King Emmanuel II. In 1863 the Battle of Gettysburg was followed in 1864 by General Sherman’s Atlanta campaign and ‘march to the sea’.
In 1862 John STONE died in Holbeton, his wife Mary had predeceased him in 1858.
By 1865 the Civil War was over, Lincoln had been assassinated and Joseph Lister bean antiseptic surgery. That same year Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Gregor Mendel’s Law of Heredity had been published.
In 1861 John STONE married Harriet LOWDER IN Honiton Devon.
The first Melbourne Cup was run in 1861.
In 1865 John and Harriet STONE left England for Queensland accompanied by their children William Henry, Emma and Edwin.
The 18th Century still had a long way to run but for the STONEs of Australia their lives would be shaped by a different history on the other side of the world. They would be part of a new Nation and take their place as pioneers of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The history timeline helps put in context what the choices were for John and Harriet. America in the grip of a Civil War would not have been attractive to a young couple with children looking to make a fresh start. New Zealand was in the grip of war between the British and Maoris between 1843 and 1872 (previously known as the Maori Wars). Notwithstanding that South Africa had been established in 1851 Australia probably appeared a safer and more certain destination. Australia was also British, what they knew.
Labour recruitment in the UK for the Australian colonies was well in train at about this time and there were opportunities to be assisted migrants to work on new projects in this far away land. Although starting out as a Penal Colony the Australian Crown colonies were now the domain of free settlers, far removed from Europe which had been a war zone for the better part of the previous 100 years. Australia in all probability represented opportunity for a laborer9 and cart man10 working the wharves of Plymouth and feeding a wife and 3 young children.
The UK Census in 1861 has John, Harriet and William Henry sharing accommodation at 9 Keate Street, Stoke Damerel Devonport.11 They are 3 among 24 souls comprising 4 families (10 males and 14 females) in a single dwelling. One family carries the surname GOAD (Joseph GOAD born Plympton, St. Mary Devon born 1823 and possibly a descendant of one of John’s grandmother Mary Ann GOAD’s siblings). Long after John and Harriet have left there is an ongoing connection in the same street.12 However by November of the year of the 1861 UK Census the family has moved to St. Leonard’s Island (now named Drakes Island) in the Plymouth Port where Emma is born 1861 and Edwin 1863. We can only surmise the circumstances and the opportunities or lack of them on the Plymouth wharves.
As indicated in the preamble the central figure of reference is Nicholas Goad STONE (1813-1891).
The Birth Certificate of Edwin STONE, son of John STONE helped prove up the lead to Nicholas Goad STONE and his wife Mary Ann HUTCHINS mother of 10 children (after the death of Mary Ann a second wife Jane HUXHAM bore him 4 children). Having made the connection to John via Edwin we were subsequently able to find John’s Baptism and birth in the parish register.13
Confirming the link to Mary Ann HUTCHINS initially proved problematic. We began by searching the Chudleigh baptism registers14 for a possible entry relating to Mary Ann HUTCHINGS about 1812/13. The only candidate we could find between 1810 and 1814 was a child baptised simply as Mary rather than Mary Ann, as follows:
Mary daughter of John & Jane HUTCHING born 15th day of November and baptised 22nd November 1811
Given that there must be a degree of doubt as to whether the above entry is correct, we requested a search of the Devon FHS’s Baptism Index for 1813-1839.15 This index is still ongoing, but is now 90-95% complete for the County. It gives the following entries in West Devon for children with parents named John HUTCHIN(G)s and Jane:
At Holbeton – Louisa (14 Feb 1819, born 4 Nov 1818), Charlotte (6 May 1821, born 24 Apr 1821), Harriet (26 Feb 1832, born 28 Jan 1832)
The father in 1819 is noted to be a pauper resident in the poor house and in 1821 simply as a pauper in Holbeton, by 1832 he was a labourer.
At Plymouth St. Andrew – Abraham (8 May 1814), Henry (29 Jan 1816), John Earle (6 Nov 1825), Henry (15 Apr 1827), and Mary Jane (5 Aug 1829). The father(s) is/are described as a labourer except in 1816 (“labourer in a brewery”) and 1829 (“porter”)
There is also a family at Bideford in North Devon in 1827, 1828, 1830 and 1833 where the father is described as a lath maker. Other single entries are listed at Dittisham (1837), Exeter St. Mary Arches (1814; the father being a waiter) and Poltimore (1831). It is conceivable that the people at Holbeton were earlier at Chudleigh. This would explain potentially why Mary Ann HUTCHINGS later married into the STONE family based at Holbeton. We also requested a search of the Devon FHS’s Marriage Index for 1754-1812.16 This index is complete for the county; all surviving recorded marriages in all parishes have been entered onto the database, which has then been triple checked by the indexing team to ensure a high degree of accuracy. Only three entries are listed for the name John HUTCHIN(G)s with a bride named Jane. Two of these are dated 1766 at Buckfastleigh (about 11 miles from Chudleigh) and Monkleigh (in North Devon and some 36 miles from Chudleigh).
These persons would have been too old to have had a child in 1811, but the entries may give a pointer to an earlier generation. The third entry is for a John Hutchins and Jane Sherres (sic) at East Stonehouse (Plymouth) on 4 Apr 1798. If the family was moving around the county in search of employment, these could be the parents of Mary, baptised at Chudleigh in 1811 and possibly at Holbeton later on.
We then confirmed the following baptism of John STONE, Nicholas’s older brother in the Holbeton parish registers:17
1786, Jany 15 – John, son of Josias Stone & Jenny his wife
We could find no baptism entry for a Nicholas STONE in about 1807. However, we did locate the following in the new-style register commencing in January 1813:18
No. 39: 1813, December 26 (Born 6th December 1813) – Nicholas Goad, son of John & Mary Stone, of Holbeton, joiner
Using additional information gained from a headstone in the graveyard at All Saints Church, Holbeton that Josias STONE died in 1829 we located the following burial entry:19
No. 246: Josias Stone, of Mothecombe, buried April 19th 1829, aged 67 years
The age at burial recorded for Josias STONE suggests a year of birth about 1761/62. This neatly matches the following baptism entry at Holbeton:20
1761, May 12 – Josias, son of Richard stone Born April 18
We also confirmed that the only other two baptisms for children of Richard STONE to be found at Holbeton up to 1775 are:
27 Mar 1764 – John, son of Richard Stone
12 Feb 1768 – Grace, dau of Richard Stone
We then requested a search of the Devon FHS’s Marriage Index (1754-1812) for any Richard STONE in or before May 1761.21 There was only one possibility, namely a Richard STONE and a Mary YABSLEY at South Pool on 5 Aug 1760. South Pool is about 12 miles East South East from Holbeton.
We then confirmed the marriage at South Pool as follows:22
No. 18: Bans of Marriage between Richard Stone & Mary Yabsley were publish’d on the 20 & 27 Days of July and the 3rd day of August by me Henry Sleep, Curate. The said Richard Stone of this parish and Mary Yabsley of this Parish were Married in this Church by Banns this Fifth Day of August in the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty by me, Henry Sleep, Curate. This Marriage was } Richard Stone solemnized between us } The Mark X of Mary Yabsley In the Presence of } The Mark X of Richard Hutchins } Saml Hewitt
It may simply be an interesting coincidence that one of the witnesses was surnamed Hutchins, but this may point to some family or business connection or friendship that gave rise to the later STONE/HUTCHIN(G)s marriage.
The HUTCHING’s family line remains slightly problematic. We needed to decide whether the Mary baptised at Chudleigh in 1811 is the Mary Ann who married Nicholas STONE in 1836 and subsequently gave her birthplace as Chudleigh.
That then left us with the problem that John and Jane HUTCHING, parents of the said Mary, did not have any further children baptised at Chudleigh. They could plausibly be the people who were later in the poor house at Holbeton. We have not been able to determine whether any poor law material survived for the parish at that period. A further problem was whether these people are the ones who married at East Stonehouse in 1798. We needed to bear in mind that there is another John Hutchings and Jane with children baptised at Plymouth St Andrew from 1814.
Unfortunately, some of the large urban Plymouth parishes are very time-consuming to explore and there are no pre-1813 indexes to some of them. The Devon IGI only lists about 60% of parishes in the county. In event we now had a plausible lead to the earlier STONE family in the shape of the marriage at South Pool in 1760.
As set out above to be on the safe side we checked the baptism registers for South Pool in the early to mid 1760s to ensure that this couple is not having children baptised there at the same time as the people at Holbeton. Our hypothesis looked fairly sound unless there was a non-IGI marriage for a Richard STONE in the immediate Holbeton area before 1754 and we can link such a family to Holbeton. Insofar as we were able to determine, that proved not to be the case.
We had made our link to the STONEs of South Pool having also linked the STONEs of Australia to Nicholas Goad STONE.
Our extensive research had led us to a small village in southern England called South Pool but first consider for one moment their world and what they knew of it.
The Age of Enlightenment marked the 1500’s. Religious belief and authority would be challenged as never before, national boundaries redrawn and frontiers pushed back. Great figures of history – Kings, Queens, Emperors and Sultans would redefine the world whilst at the same time great intellect, creativity and inventiveness would emerge and endure. This was an era of Henry VIII (1491–1547), Martin Luther (1483-1546), John Calvin (1509– 1564), John Knox (1510-1572), Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535), Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556), The Council of Trent (1545-1563), the brief restoration of Catholicism in England by Queen Mary 1 in 1553. This Century also marked the ascension to the throne of Elizabeth I in 1558 and the establishment of the State Church of England (Anglicanism); what her father started Elizabeth finished.
As England’s Renaissance began Italy’s ended. At the start of the century Rome had been an unassailable seat of influence and scholarship. Models of governance, politics and commerce defined many of the surrounding City States. Families of influence dominated daily life. Machiavelli wrote The Prince in 1513, by 1527 the Medici’s were expelled from Florence, the same year the Holy Roman Empire attacked Rome and imprisoned Pope Clement. A weakened Rome and Pope was poorly placed to deal with Henry VIII and his demands. Notwithstanding England flourished under Henry who is widely credited with introducing important measures of governance that were refined and continued by Elizabeth. By the mid 1500’s Shakespeare (1564–1616) was central to the English Renaissance. Elizabeth (1533–1603) consolidated her reign, one of the most enduring and successful of any English monarch. The world was changing. Rome’s authority had been successfully challenged through the Reformation.
The world’s frontiers had been pushed back. In 1513 Balboa became the first European to encounter the Pacific Ocean, in 1519 Ferdinand Magellan had set out to circumnavigate the world, killed by Philippine natives in 1520 one of his captains Juan Sebastian del Caro reached Spain in 1522. By 1524 Verrazano under a French flag had explored the New England Coast and New York Bay. In 1535 Jacques Cartier had sailed up the Lawrence River later giving ground to France’s claim to Canada. Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe in 1581.
The Netherlands had thrown off Spanish rule in 1561; the French Huguenots had endured decades of repression. Ivan the Terrible ruled Russia, Akbar the Great had become Mogul Emperor of India and Suleiman ‘The Magnificent’ had become Sultan of Turkey in 1520 marking a reign over the Ottomans that would never be surpassed. Early in the century by 1503 Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa and sculpture of David had been completed, the same year he and other great artisans Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael and Bernini commenced construction of St. Peter’s in Rome (finished in 1626). Meanwhile by 1570 Japan had opened its ports to Europe and the Peace of Constantinople in 1572 had ended Turkish attacks on Europe. Religion had been redefined, allegiances and government rewritten and the world knew a little more about itself. In 1582 when Pope Gregory implemented the Gregorian calendar he must have reflected on a Century that redefined the known world. With the execution of Catholic Mary Queen of Scots 5 years later in 1587, the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English in 1590 and the assassination of Henry VI who had converted to Catholicism in 1593 Rome was left in no doubt that a new world order had been ushered in.
Nowadays South Pool is picturesque village at the head of the Kingsbridge estuary; it’s not hard to imagine on a visit how it must have appeared back in the 1700s.23
I have reproduced three historical descriptions of South Pool below.24 Extract from Devon by W.G.Hoskins (1954):
“POOL, SOUTH lies at the head of a long creek of the Kingsbridge estuary and is one of the most attractive and unspoilt villages in Devon. The fine church (St. Nicholas and St. Cyriacus) is of considerable interest. It is built entirely of local slates, the tower being a notable example of building in this stone. The present fabric is mainly late 15th century in date, but the core of the church may be that of the building consecrated by Bishop Stapelton on 24 August 1318. The rood-screen, a fine example, is probably c. 1500 or a little later, and is similar to that of Dartmouth. In the S. transept is a female effigy (early (4th century), either a Courtenay or a Chichester. The Easter sepulchre is occupied by the tomb and effigy of Thomas Briant, rector of S. Pool and Portlemouth (living 1536). At the back of the recess is a carving of the Resurrection. There are monuments to Leonard Darre, Esquire, and his wife (1608, 1615), and a splendid Norman font”.
Transcribed from by Terry Partridge William White’s History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Devonshire 1850:
“POOL, SOUTH is a small village, at the head of a navigable creek, five miles S.S.E. of Kingsbridge, has in its parish 555 souls, and 1929A. 3R. 18P. of land including, North Pool hamlet and part of Frogmore village. (See Sherford) W.M. Praed, Esq., is lord of the manor of South Pool, and the Earl of Devon owns that of North Pool; but Thos. Cornish, Esq., Mr. Edw. Garland, and a few smaller owners, have estates here, chiefly freehold. The parish was anciently held by the de Pola, Punchardon, and Scobel families. The Church (St. Cyriac,) is a fine specimen of the perpendicular style, with a lofty tower and six bells. The interior has transepts, and has a neat and clean appearance. The screen is elaborately carved; and in the chancel is a handsome altar tomb or Easter sepulchre, with a representation of the Resurrection in front of it. Here are also monuments for members of the Dare, Lake, and Bastard families. The rectory, valued in K.B. at £22. 16s. 5½d., and in 1831 at £486, is in the patronage of W. M. Praed and A. Kelly, Esqrs., the former having two turns and the latter one. The Rev. Henry Taylor, M.A., is the incumbent, and has a large and handsome residence, and 52A. 2R. 23P. of glebe. The tithes were commuted in 1840, for £387 per annum. The poor have 25s. and the rector 15s. yearly, left by Andrew Horsman, in 1687; and the former have an annuity of 21s., left by Leonard Dare’’.
Transcribed by Colin Hinson, a description from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868):
'’SOUTH POOL, a parish in the hundred of Coleridge, county Devon, 4½ miles S.E. of Kingsbridge, its post town. It is situated on Salcombe Creek, and includes the hamlets of North Poole and Frogmoor. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £376, and there are 45½ acres of glebe. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Exeter, value £486. The church is dedicated to St. Cyriac. The parochial charities produce about £3 per annum’’.
The population of South Pool dating from the 1500’s has been variable over the centuries. In 1641/42 96 adults signed the Protestation Rolls25 and by 1801 the population had blossomed to 412, 50 years on 555. However according to the UK Census Returns of 1861 the population declined to 413 and by 1901 further declined to 296.
The local population would not have been aware of all that had occurred the previous century. However it would be reasonable to assume that they certainly knew of their monarchs, Henry, ‘Bloody’ Mary and Elizabeth. Local clergy would have acquainted them with the breakdown of the relationship with Rome although few would understand the Reformation and the many central players. Francis Drake would be well known to them as a national hero particularly given the geographical location of South Pool to Plymouth. The Spanish and their Armada would have been top of mind as would certain events and personalities in the Holy Land. Shakespeare was by all accounts well known and admired competing with Christopher Marlow for pre-eminence. As for great discoveries and new frontiers such may have been the gossip and talk in the village and local inn but with a limited grasp of where it would all lead – global immigration. People’s daily lives would have been about surviving, the trades were evolving, infant mortality was high, literacy limited – this was their world presided over by a near absolute monarch and a landed aristocracy not eager to share in the spoils of England.
It was however possible to own land, pay taxes, to be prosperous and raise a family. Neither the British Empire had yet arrived nor the Union. Life in the South Hams would have been mundane but pleasant by relative standards far removed from the emerging urban sprawl of fledging cities. By 1607 Jamestown Virginia had been established, Galileo saw the moons of Jupiter through his telescope, John Napier had discovered logarithms and by 1619 the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower had reached Plymouth Rock. The 30 year war started in 1618 ending in 1648 followed by the English Civil War. It was also during this period between 1622 and 1624 that the siege of Plymouth occurred no doubt directly impacting on the communities of South Pool and Holbeton.Charles I was subsequently defeated by the Parliamentary Forces in 1646, was brought to trial in 1648 and beheaded in 1649. Cromwell became Lord Protector in 1653. On his death and the failure of his son to govern the English Parliament restored the monarchy with Charles II in 1661; 4 years later the Great Plague killed 75,000 people in London. Catholic James II succeeded Charles culminating in William of Orange taking the Throne in 1685. In 1690 William III defeated James II and Irish rebels at the Battle of the Boyne.
Our interest centres on the turn of the 16th century with an Anthonye STONE through to 1753 when the first of the STONEs of South Pool appear in Holbeton. The thread that we researched was Richard (married in South Pool later living in Holbeton) – Richard (married in South Pool) – Peter (married in South Pool) – Anthony (married in South Pool) - Anthonye (married in South Pool).
As previously reported the single most important date in English genealogy (along with civil registration in 1837) dates from when each parish in England and Wales was ordered to keep a register of baptisms, marriages and burials. However the earliest date from which many Registers exists is 1598 when it was required that every parish should keep a bound register and older registers (usually on single sheets) should be copied into it. However many parishes only made their copies from Elizabeth I first regnal year26 and this has contributed to a paucity of records.
As will become evident the surname STONE occurred in the parish of South Pool at least as early as the Lay Subsidy Rolls of the early 1520s.27 The family name was so well established in the parish that by the 1660s when the first surviving Register begins there are several discrete family lines of descent from persons present in the early sixteenth century.
At best we claim Peter (mid 1600’s), father of Richard (early 1700’s). The links to Anthony (circa 1620’s) and Anthonye (circa late 1500’s) are tenuous at best. However what is clear is that there were discrete STONE family units living in South Pool throughout the 1500’s and on the balance of probabilities many were related.
Just to recap our previous research we located the baptism of a Richard, son of Richard and Elizabeth STONE at South Pool on 29 October 1727. This appeared a plausible candidate for the Richard STONE who married at South Pool in 1760 and appears subsequently to have raised a family at Holbeton. One baptism entry that we found at South Pool in 1736 indicates that Richard STONE senior was then considered to be of the nearby parish of Sherford.
Thus our first task was to consolidate these initial findings at South Pool and to check baptisms at Sherford. We were also seeking a marriage for Richard STONE senior and his immediate ancestry. A search of Sherford baptisms between 1720 and 1750 inclusive did not turn up any children of a Richard STONE, although the surname STONE does occur in the parish.28
When we previously checked South Pool baptisms from 1726 to 1746 inclusive, entries were found for:29
Richard, son of Richard STONE and Elizabeth his wife was baptised 29 October 1727
Rebecca, daughter of Richard STONE and Elizabeth his wife of the Parish of Sherford, was baptised February 15 1736
Working backwards to 1720, we now found the following additional children for this family:
Guart (unclear entry) daughter of Richard STONE and Elizabeth his Wife was baptised 10 June 1722
Mary, daughter of Richard STONE and Elizabeth his Wife was baptised 20 Sept 1724
We then located the following marriage at South Pool:30
Richard STONE and Elizabeth Edwards were married by Banns 23 Jan 1721
The legal age for males to marry was only 14 at this time. Therefore Richard STONE could theoretically have been born and baptised as late as about 1707, but more probably up to 20 or so years earlier. We therefore worked backwards from 1707 through the baptism entries at South Pool. Eventually, an entry was found in 1681, making Richard aged 40 at the time of his marriage in 1721. This is later than average, but not entirely unusual. Altogether, Richard and four other siblings were found between 1680 and 1707, as follows:31
9 May 1681 was baptised Richard the son of Peter STONE and Grace his wife
4 Nov 1683 were baptised Petronilla & Sarah daughters of Peter STONE and of Grace his wife
Dec 14th 1686 was baptised Peter the son of Peter STONE and of Grace his wife
Bapt Will: the son of Pet: & Grace STONE Jan 1st 1689
There were other Stone families in the parish during this period. Also having children baptised were Sampson, Edward, Hercules and John STONE.
We then located the following marriage entry:32
Marriages 1678: Peter STONE and Grace Grant were married April 9th
Thus we had confirmed that Richard STONE senior was married at South Pool in 1721 and that his son Richard (later of Holbeton) was baptised in 1727, the third of four children to be baptised at South Pool. In turn, Richard senior appears to have been baptised at South Pool in 1681, the first of four children to be found for Peter Stone and his wife Grace, formerly GRANT.
At this stage it was considered sensible to consolidate existing knowledge of the STONE family at South Pool by working systematically through the burial entries. We were of the view that this would help identify possible entries for Peter and Grace, Richard and Elizabeth, and also to show whether any of their children were buried as infants. Although many entries only give a date and name, some occasionally give ages or refer to professions and residences, which can enhance our knowledge of the family.
Unfortunately, the poor state of the surviving Bishops Transcripts33 and their limited survival rate meant that it was impossible from these records to see precisely where Peter STONE (married 1678, South Pool) fits in. Our research however did find one further child of Peter – Grace (baptised 11 February 1678; because of the workings of the Old Style Calendar this was after the marriage of Peter and Grace GRANT on 9 April 1678). Peter was probably the person buried on 16 July 1728 and his wife may be the person buried on 20 January 1733 alternatively on 7 September 1741.
Their son Richard could be the person buried on 25 October 1761, but there are 3 or 4 Elizabeth STONE burials that could refer to his wife or widow. Richard STONE lost a daughter Mary in 1725 and her burial entry indicates that he was a weaver. This is a nice bonus as so often it is not possible to know what occupation an ancestor followed. It is also useful to know that other STONE family members were described as labourer, hellier, cooper, yeoman and husbandman. A Roger STONE was the parish sexton at the time of his death in 1724.
South Pool parish registers have survived from 1664, but there are also a few scattered Bishops Transcripts dating from 1606. We searched the earlier years to see whether we could find clues as to Peter STONE’s possible parentage. Thereafter, we examined the available transcripts to such sources as the 1641 Protestation Returns,34 the 1674 Hearth Tax Returns35 and other early fiscal records for the county of Devon.
Also in working our way through the records during the Commonwealth Interregnum of 1649 to 1660 (the period from the execution of Charles I to the restoration of Charles II) many pedigrees enter a ‘black hole’. There was however Civil registration from 1653 to 1660. Initially our research concentrated purely on baptisms and marriages at South Pool. We then consolidated our existing knowledge by working systematically through the burial entries up to 1760 to identify possible entries for Peter and Grace, Richard and Elizabeth, and also to discover whether any of their children were buried as infants.
We identified the following families in South Pool with the common surname of STONE.
Anthony the son of William STONE of Chivelston (adjoining parish) and Johan his wife baptised Mar 7th 1664
John the son of Robert STONE and Mary his wife baptised Sep 10th 1666
Sampson the son of Sampson STONE and Johan his wife baptised Apr 27th 1668
Mary the daughter of Robert STONE and Mary his wife baptised Jan 10th 1668
Edward the son of Sampson STONE and Johan his wife baptised 1 Aug 1669
Johan daughter of John STONE and Grace his wife baptised Jan 1st 1672
Johan daughter of Sampson STONE and Johan his wife baptised Jan 6th 1672
Roger the son of Edward STONE and Elizabeth his wife baptised Aug 29th 1673
John son of John STONE and Thamsin his wife baptised Oct 21st 1673
Grace daughter of John STONE and Grace his wife baptised Mar 12th 1675
William son of John STONE and Thomsin his wife baptised Oct 17th 1676
William son of Sampson STONE and Johan his wife baptised Sep 22nd 1677
John son of John STONE and Thomasin his wife baptised Jan 1st 1678
Grace daughter of Peter STONE and Grace his wife baptised Feb 11th 1678
Joseph son of Sampson STONE and Johan his wife baptised Mar 15th 1679
John son of John STONE and Thomasin his wife baptised Jan 20th 1680
In summary the above Baptismal records provide a snapshot of STONE Families in South Pool between 1664 and 1677; we collated and grouped them as follows.
William & Johan STONE Anthony (1664)
Robert & Mary STONE (see marriage) John (1666) Mary 1668)
Sampson & Johan STONE Sampson (1668) Edward (1669) Joseph (1679)
John & Grace STONE (see marriage) Johan (1672) Grace (1675)
Edward & Elizabeth Roger (1673)
John & Thamsin STONE John (1673) William (1676) John (1678) John (1680)
Peter & Grace STONE (see marriage) Grace (1678)
We then turned our attention to marriages in South Pool involving STONEs.
Robert STONE and Mary PINHAY married Nov 23rd 1665
John STONE and Grace LUCKHAM married 27 Oct 1668
Peter STONE married Grace GRANT Apr 9th 1678
Edward STONE and Mary TERRY married Aug 11th 1680
It doesn’t follow that all couples would have married in South Pool. We have not conducted an exhaustive research of surrounding villages.
In a logical sequence burials for this same period were examined next (we later return to Burials for the period 1680 to 1780).
Robert STONE buried Dec 2nd 1666
Edward STONE buried 12 Mar 1668
Richard STONE son of John STONE buried Aug 22nd 1672
Roger STONE buried Apr 15th 1673
Elizabeth wife of Edward STONE buried May 10th 1673
John son of John STONE buried Mar 18th 1674
Philippa daughter of Sampson STONE was buried May 22nd 1679
We then investigated the surviving Early Bishops Transcripts for South Pool.36 Unfortunately, these are in very poor condition. The only years that exist before the start of the registers in 1664 are: 1606, 1607, 1611, 1620, 162(?), 1624(?), 1633 and some years where the top of the pages with the date are missing. The next transcript after 1633 is dated 1670. Only two STONE entries could be identified from these remaining documents.
Maria (?) daughter of Willm STONE was baptised 1st Mai 1611
Joana STONE widow (buried) Mar 2nd 16(?) (the year is missing, but the document is placed after the one for 1633)
Turning to available transcripts of some early Devon sources (bearing in mind that it was not until 1733 that records were Anglicized having previously been recorded in Latin), we examined the following:37
Devon Lay Subsidy Rolls 1524-152738 (edited by TL Stoate) – Southpole Parish (that is, South Pool) – Walter STONE assessed at goods to the value of £3
Devon Lay Subsidy Rolls, 1543-1545 (edited by T L Stoate) – Poole Parish (that is, South Pool) – Walter STONE and John STONE both assessed at goods to the value of £5 and £1 respectively. Devon Muster 1569 (edited by A J Howard and T L Stoate) – Southe Pole Parrishe (that is, South Pool) – Edward STONE listed as a harquebusier, Thomas STONE listed as a pikeman and John STONE listed as a billman
Devon Taxes, 1681-1660 (edited by T L Stoate) – The Subsidy of 1581 – Poule Parish (that is, South Pool) – Edward STONE assessed at goods to the value of £3
Devon Protestation Returns 1641 (edited by A J Howard) – South Pool Parish – Edward STONE and William STONE are both listed among the signatories
Devon Taxes, 1681-1660 (edited by T L Stoate) – The Assessment of 1647 – South Pool Parish – the original document is damaged and full details have therefore been lost. STONE is listed as a surname that can be seen, but there is no Christian name or other details remaining. Devon Hearth Tax Returns, 1674 (edited by T L Stoate) – South Pool Parish – Geo STONE (2), Will STONE (2), Edw STONE (1), —– STONE (1) and Arth STONE (1) are all listed in the parish (numbers refer to the total hearths upon which assessed)
We then worked through the South Pool burial entries from 1680 to 1780 (except for 1688 and 1689, which do not appear to have survived) and found over three dozen entries for the surname STONE, as follows:39
17 Aug 1683: Judith STONE
22 Jun 1684: Nicholas son of John STONE
20 Feb 1684: Benjamin son of Sampson STONE
16 Mar 1684: Robert son of John STONE
8 Apr 1685: John STONE of this towne
28 Jun 1685: Priscilla STONE wid
9 May 1692: Grace daughter of John STON (sic)
12 May 1692: John STON (sic)
24 Jul 1692: Nicolas Dare STONE
5 May 1694: Phillip STONE
10 Oct 1706: Barbara STONE daughter of Edward STONE Cooper
30 Apr 1709: Grace STONE
24 Dec 1709: Thomasin STONE wife of Jn STONE Husbandman
13 Mar 1711: John son of Roger STONE of Northpool
10 Oct 1713: Roger STONE son of Roger STONE Husbandman
20 Jul 1720: John STONE Husbandman
1 Oct 1720: Sampson STONE of Scobel (presumably the name of a local farm or hamlet)
12 Nov 1720: Edward STONE Cooper
26 Apr 1721: William STONE Hellyer
10 Nov 1722: Edward STONE Yeoman
7 Jun 1723: Roger son of Roger STONE and Sus~ his wife
2 Feb 1724: Roger STONE Sexton
7 Dec 1725: Mary daughter of Richard STONE Weaver
6 May 1726: Joan STONE wid of Sampson STONE
26 May 1726: Susanna STONE
16 Jul 1728: Peter STONE (Elder? – writing unclear)
27 Jun 1730: Grace wife of Roger STONE
20 Jan 1733: Grace STONE
24 Jan 1740: John STONE (—-? - illegible)
7 Sep 1741: Grace STONE
19 Oct 1741: John STONE of South Pool
19 Oct 1741: Eliz STONE
27 Dec 1745: Roger STONE senr of North Pool
1 Dec 1752: Joan STONE
23 Mar 1752: Peter STONE
14 Sep 1759: Roger son of William STONE
25 Oct 1761: Richard STONE
10 Dec 1762: Elizabeth STONE
30 Mar 1769: Elizabeth STONE
20 Feb 1774: Mary STONE
30 Jan 1776: Roger STONE
12 Sep 1776: Agness STONE
3 Dec 1780: Elizabeth STONE
As stated at the outset we have been able to demonstrate through our research that the surname STONE occurred in the parish of South Pool at least as early as the Lay Subsidy Rolls of the early 1520s. Clearly the family name was so well established in the parish that by the 1660s when the first surviving register begins there are several discrete family lines of descent from persons present in the early sixteenth century. Unfortunately, the poor state of the surviving Bishops Transcripts and their limited survival rate means that it is impossible from these records to see precisely where Peter STONE (married 1678) fits in.
There were other avenues of research open to us with a view to further consolidation of our general findings. The Record Office and Westcountry Studies Library have a number of catalogues and indexes available for research. These include medieval Inquisitiones Post Mortem; abstracts from Consistory Court records; Overseers’ Papers and other parish documents; wills; personal names in deeds, leases and other legal documents; family and estate papers. However it is impossible to predict what, if anything, has survived that may relate to the STONE surname at South Pool and Holbeton.
We have no certainty of the Anthonye – Anthony – Peter connection other than on the balance of probabilities they were related in some way and their antecedents extended into the early part of the 15th Century. It is a matter of speculation where they came from before that time.
We can be more certain of Peter – Richard – Richard which takes us back to where we had started – South Pool to Holbeton. Richard and his son Richard had both married in South Pool. The latter’s first child Jane STONE was born in Holbeton 1753 and our direct line, the second born Josias STONE in 1761.
We had not only authenticated Nicholas Goad STONE’s link to the STONE’s of South Pool. We had also also linked the STONE’s of Australia to Nicholas Goad STONE.
As the STONEs of South Pool went about their daily lives unbeknown to them their ultimate destination on the other side of the world in generations to come – Australia – was being explored. The Dutch ship Duyfken under Captain Willem Janszoon in March 1606 explored the western coast of Cape York Peninsula, the first recorded landfall by a European. It has since been established that Indonesian fishermen had been coming and going to Australia for some considerable time before that. The Chinese have made a similar although unverifiable claim. In August 1606 Portuguese seaman Luis Vaez de Torres sailed through the now Torres Strait along what was to become known as New Guineas southern coast and reported shoals further south possibly the upper most reaches of the Barrier Reef. Later French charts showed this area as Coste Dangereuse. In 1616 Captain Dirk Hartog in the Eendaracht made the second land fall by a European on Dirk Hartog Island western coast of Australia and left his famous plate nailed to a tree. In 1616 Dutch Captain Jan Carstensz navigated the Gulf of Carpentaria aboard the Pera and Arnhem. The Arnhem crossed the Gulf to reach and name Groote Eylandt. By 1642 the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman had explored the west and parts of the east coast of Tasmania. He named the island Anthoonij Van Diemenslandt. It was not until 1688 that the English arrived on the scene when William Dampier explored the west coast of Australia. In 1696 Flemish explorer Willem de Viamingh charted the south west coast of Australia, making landfall at Rottnest Island and the site of the future city and capital of Western Australia Perth. It took another 74 years for the English to lay claim the continent of Australia when in 1770 the HM Bark Endeavour under the command of Lieutenant James Cook charted the eastern coast of Australia at one point running aground at what is today Cook Town.
Little doubt that news of Cooks exploits would have reached the good folk of South Pool including the STONE family. Little did they know what significance this held for them a 100 years hence. In 1788, the same year that George III went mad the First Fleet under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip arrived in Australia and established a penal colony at Sydney Cove.
Governor Phillip’s Commission dated 25 April 1787 included “all the islands adjacent in the Pacific Ocean” and running westward to the 135th meridian. These islands included New Zealand which was over time administered as part of New South Wales.
On board the Prince of Wales was Ellen WAINWRIGHT alias Esther ECCLES, the first of our maternal line in Australia. Convicted at the Preston Azizes she was sentenced and transported for 9 years; in effect a life sentence. News of Australia’s settlement as a penal was widely known in England. In the South Hams in proximity to Plymouth, a port of embarkation for Australia the STONE family now living in Holbeton would have been well aware of a destination that they in time would call home but as free settlers.
However it would be 75 years before the descendants of the STONEs of South Pool - John and Harriet Stone and their 3 children William, Emma and Edwin (Jack and Madeleine’s paternal great great grandfather) would make their way to Australia.
Plymouth & West Devon Record Office, Plymouth: Holbeton Parish Registers: MF 6 ↩
General Register Office England Certified Copy of an Extract of Birth 1838 ↩
General Register Office England Certified Copy of an Extract of Marriage 1859 ↩
See also Hoskin W.G Devon and It’s People(Exeter: A. Wheaton 1959) ↩
So described on the Marriage Certificate; also UK Census 1861 Class: RG9; Piece: 1453; Folio: 7; Page: 8; GSU roll: 542815. On William Henry’s Birth Certificate 1860 described as ‘dock labourer’; On Emma’s Birth Certificate 1861 described as ‘masons labourer’ ↩
So described on the Birth Certificate of Edwin 1863 ↩
UK Census 1861 Class:RG69;Piece:1453;Folio:7;Page:8;GSU Roll:542815; there is also a Joseph GOAD and his family residing at the residence in 1861 ↩
Sarah Goad BISSETT nee STONE (aunt to John) according to the UK Census 1881 was living at 10 Keate Street described as ‘widow’;Class:RG11;Piece:2214;Folio:14;Page:22;GSU Roll:1341533 ↩
Only evidence of birth is in the Parish Register. It was not until 1875 that birth registration became compulsory notwithstanding that Civil Registration had been introduced in 1 July 1837. Devon Family History Society Deanery of Plympton, Parish Records p. 154 of 638 ↩
Devon Record Office, Exeter: Chudleigh Parish Registers: MF 17 ↩
Devon Family History Society Baptism Index, 1813-1839 ↩
Devon Family History Society Marriage Index, 1754-1812 ↩
Plymouth & West Devon Record Office, Plymouth: Holbeton Parish Registers: MF 6 ↩
Plymouth & West Devon Record Office, Plymouth: Holbeton Parish Registers: MF 8 ↩
Plymouth & West Devon Record Office, Plymouth: Holbeton Parish Registers: MF 5 ↩
Plymouth & West Devon Record Office, Plymouth: Holbeton Parish Registers: MF 5; the father’s name was initially recorded as William, but this has been crossed through and Richard substituted ↩
Devon FHS Marriage Index, 1754-1812 ↩
Plymouth & West Devon Record Office, Plymouth: South Pool Parish Registers: MF 3A ↩
Protestation Oath Returns In 1642 the Parliament ordered all males over 18 to take an oath to defend the ‘true religion’ ↩
Lay Subsidy Rolls Medieval tax on moveable goods revived by Henry VIII. Lists used to calculate population ↩
Devon Record Office, Exeter: Sherford Parish Registers: MF1 ↩
Devon RO, Exeter: South Pool Parish Registers: MF 1 ↩
Introduced in 1598 they were the copies of the Parish Registers sent to the local Bishop. A number have not been copied accurately, are incomplete or are missing ↩
Protestation Oath Returns In 1642 the Parliament ordered all males over 18 to take an oath to defend the ‘true religion’ ↩
Hearth Tax Returns 1662-1668 (survive only to 1664) a tax on the number of hearths in a household it was a principal source of revenue for Charles II and James II. Returns are valuable in calculating population ↩
Devon Record Office, Exeter: Early Bishops Transcripts ↩
Westcountry Studies Library, Exeter: Transcripts of early Devon sources ↩
Lists of those paying taxes on goods, levied for a specific purpose like a foreign war. Originally established 1290-1344 and later revived by Henry VIII 1524-1546 ↩
Devon Record Office, Exeter: South Pool Parish Registers: MF1-2 ↩